Thursday, 19 October 2017 / TRUTH-OUT.ORG

SUPPORT MEDIA THAT DOESN'T SELL OUT

The stories you read here are published thanks to our readers -- not corporate sponsors or advertisers.

We need your help to continue this essential work. Will you support boldly independent journalism today?

Click here
to donate.

Forty Acres and a Mule Would Be at Least $6.4 Trillion Today: What the US Really Owes Black America

Tuesday, May 19, 2015 By Jeff Neumann and Tracy Loeffelholz Dunn, YES! Magazine | News Analysis
  • font size decrease font size decrease font size increase font size increase font size
  • Print

Truthout combats corporate power by bringing you trustworthy, independent news. Join our mission by making a donation now!

Slavery made the US wealthy, and racist policies since have blocked African American wealth-building. Can we calculate the economic damage?

2015 0518pay

Sources:

Introduction

http://theconversation.com/slavery-in-america-back-in-the-headlines-33004

http://www.civil-war.net/census.asp?census=Total

1.

1.5 million pounds in 1790 and 2.25 billion pounds in 1859, based on Empire of Cotton, by Sven Beckert (2014) pgs. 104, 106

77% based on: Cotton and Race in the Making of America: The Human Costs of Economic Power, by Gene Dattel (2009)

http://mshistorynow.mdah.state.ms.us/articles/161/cotton-in-a-global-economy-mississippi-1800-1860

Joshua Rothman, email correspondence, 2015

http://eh.net/encyclopedia/the-economics-of-the-civil-war/

http://abrahamlincolnsclassroom.org/abraham-lincoln-in-depth/abraham-lincoln-and-civil-war-finance

48.3% in 1860 according to Gavin Wright, Slavery and American Economic Development (LSU Press, 2006, paperback 2013) [personal communication]

2.

http://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1073&context=jlasc

http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/featured_documents/dc_emancipation_act/

http://philosophy.fullerton.edu/people/2007%20-%20Heiner%20-%20Abolition%20Democracy%20-%20Rad%20Phil%20Today%205.pdf

http://www.cjcj.org/uploads/cjcj/documents/slavery_in.PDF

http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21583992-fifty-years-after-martin-luther-kings-speech-fixing-americas-racial-ills-requires-new/comments?page=8

The Politics of Despair: Power and Resistance in the Tobacco Wars. Tracy Campbell, 2015

7% based on: Documents of the Assembly of the State of New York, Vol. 4. 1979.

3.

http://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/ssb/v70n4/v70n4p49.html

70-80%, according to: http://www.theatlantic.com/features/archive/2014/05/the-case-for-reparations/361631/#ii-a-difference-of-kind-not-degree

http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CREC-2010-08-05/html/CREC-2010-08-05-pt1-PgS6836.htm

http://www.farmaid.org/atf/cf/%7B6ef41923-f003-4e0f-a4a6-ae0031db12fb%7D/FARM_AID_2014_ISSUE_BRIEF-BLACK_FARMING_AND_LAND_LOSS.PDF

http://www.racialequitytools.org/resourcefiles/lui.pdf

http://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1073&context=jlasc

4.

https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2014/demo/p60-249.pdf

Dime based on: http://www.insightcced.org/uploads/CRWG/LayingTheFoundationForNationalProsperity-MeizhuLui0309.pdf

http://newsreel.org/guides/race/whiteadv.htm

$59 trillion: http://activistteacher.blogspot.com/2013/01/calculated-minimum-reparation-due-to.html

$15 trillion: National Legal and Policy Center, http://www.newsmax.com/Newsfront/obama-reparations-black-farmers/2010/02/21/id/350458/

$25 trillion:  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPcap/1999-11/23/047r-112399-idx.html

Martin Luther King: http://www.theroot.com/articles/history/2014/07/mlk_s_case_for_reparations_included_disadvantaged_whites.html

This piece was reprinted by Truthout with permission or license. It may not be reproduced in any form without permission or license from the source.

Tracy Loeffelholz Dunn

Tracy Loeffelholz Dunn is the editorial director at YES! Magazine.

Jeff Neumann

Jeff Neumann is a contributor to YES! Magazine.

GET DAILY TRUTHOUT UPDATES
Optional Member Code

FOLLOW togtorsstottofb


Featured Videos

Forty Acres and a Mule Would Be at Least $6.4 Trillion Today: What the US Really Owes Black America

Tuesday, May 19, 2015 By Jeff Neumann and Tracy Loeffelholz Dunn, YES! Magazine | News Analysis
  • font size decrease font size decrease font size increase font size increase font size
  • Print

Truthout combats corporate power by bringing you trustworthy, independent news. Join our mission by making a donation now!

Slavery made the US wealthy, and racist policies since have blocked African American wealth-building. Can we calculate the economic damage?

2015 0518pay

Sources:

Introduction

http://theconversation.com/slavery-in-america-back-in-the-headlines-33004

http://www.civil-war.net/census.asp?census=Total

1.

1.5 million pounds in 1790 and 2.25 billion pounds in 1859, based on Empire of Cotton, by Sven Beckert (2014) pgs. 104, 106

77% based on: Cotton and Race in the Making of America: The Human Costs of Economic Power, by Gene Dattel (2009)

http://mshistorynow.mdah.state.ms.us/articles/161/cotton-in-a-global-economy-mississippi-1800-1860

Joshua Rothman, email correspondence, 2015

http://eh.net/encyclopedia/the-economics-of-the-civil-war/

http://abrahamlincolnsclassroom.org/abraham-lincoln-in-depth/abraham-lincoln-and-civil-war-finance

48.3% in 1860 according to Gavin Wright, Slavery and American Economic Development (LSU Press, 2006, paperback 2013) [personal communication]

2.

http://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1073&context=jlasc

http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/featured_documents/dc_emancipation_act/

http://philosophy.fullerton.edu/people/2007%20-%20Heiner%20-%20Abolition%20Democracy%20-%20Rad%20Phil%20Today%205.pdf

http://www.cjcj.org/uploads/cjcj/documents/slavery_in.PDF

http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21583992-fifty-years-after-martin-luther-kings-speech-fixing-americas-racial-ills-requires-new/comments?page=8

The Politics of Despair: Power and Resistance in the Tobacco Wars. Tracy Campbell, 2015

7% based on: Documents of the Assembly of the State of New York, Vol. 4. 1979.

3.

http://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/ssb/v70n4/v70n4p49.html

70-80%, according to: http://www.theatlantic.com/features/archive/2014/05/the-case-for-reparations/361631/#ii-a-difference-of-kind-not-degree

http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CREC-2010-08-05/html/CREC-2010-08-05-pt1-PgS6836.htm

http://www.farmaid.org/atf/cf/%7B6ef41923-f003-4e0f-a4a6-ae0031db12fb%7D/FARM_AID_2014_ISSUE_BRIEF-BLACK_FARMING_AND_LAND_LOSS.PDF

http://www.racialequitytools.org/resourcefiles/lui.pdf

http://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1073&context=jlasc

4.

https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2014/demo/p60-249.pdf

Dime based on: http://www.insightcced.org/uploads/CRWG/LayingTheFoundationForNationalProsperity-MeizhuLui0309.pdf

http://newsreel.org/guides/race/whiteadv.htm

$59 trillion: http://activistteacher.blogspot.com/2013/01/calculated-minimum-reparation-due-to.html

$15 trillion: National Legal and Policy Center, http://www.newsmax.com/Newsfront/obama-reparations-black-farmers/2010/02/21/id/350458/

$25 trillion:  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPcap/1999-11/23/047r-112399-idx.html

Martin Luther King: http://www.theroot.com/articles/history/2014/07/mlk_s_case_for_reparations_included_disadvantaged_whites.html

This piece was reprinted by Truthout with permission or license. It may not be reproduced in any form without permission or license from the source.

Tracy Loeffelholz Dunn

Tracy Loeffelholz Dunn is the editorial director at YES! Magazine.

Jeff Neumann

Jeff Neumann is a contributor to YES! Magazine.