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Race, History and the #ScienceMarch

Sunday, February 05, 2017 By Christopher F. Petrella, Black Perspectives | News Analysis
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A pro-science sign at the Women's March in New York, January 21, 2017. A pro-science sign at the Women's March in New York, January 21, 2017. (Photo: MTSOfan / Flickr)

Donald Trump is an anti-science president. In fact, his entire raison d'être -- perhaps unsurprisingly -- stands at cross-purposes with the scientific method, systematic inquiry, and even the basic notion of evidentiary support. In the few days since his inauguration, Trump has already prohibited scientists at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) from speaking to the public about their research. Moreover, the White House recently expunged U.S. National Park Service (NPS) Twitter content highlighting the threat of climate change. In the wake of Trump's dictates, concerned scientists have taken to social media to plan a protest in Washington, DC that they are dubbing the #ScienceMarch. The Twitter account associated with the action -- @ScienceMarchDC -- has amassed over 240,000 followers since it came online a week ago.

The #ScienceMarch has great potential to underscore the need for public policy to be grounded in scientific study. Securing widespread participation, however, will require that the organizers pull together multiple constituencies in a broad-based multi-racial and bi-partisan alliance. To be sure, the coalitional nature -- and, therefore, efficacy -- of this fledgling movement will be predicated on the extent to which its organizers are willing to acknowledge the racialized nature of the history of science itself. That is, the organizers must understand the manifold ways in which so-called scientific experimentation and discourse have been marshaled to ratify and propagate white supremacy and to degrade the bodies, minds, and experiences of people of color.

Whereas event organizers claim that "[science] is a not partisan issue," history unequivocally proves otherwise. Science is and always has been a function of power and politics. The historical record is replete with examples of the ways in which scientific inquiry and experimentation have sought to naturalize and rationalize the inferiority of people of color and justify their oppression through the language of pathology, deviance, and abnormality. Further, people of color have long served as laboratories for dangerous scientific experimentation. Exposing this lurid history is the first of many steps in forcing mainstream science -- often implicitly racialized as white -- to confront a historical past that exerts an enduring political force over our historical present.

"Because of science," 21-year-old Black South African Saartjie Baartman was brought to Europe under false pretenses in 1810 by physician William Dunlop and paraded around London's Piccadilly Circus as a "theatre of human oddities" on the basis of her large buttocks and protruding vulva. For years, Baartman's body was the object of spectacle, scientific fascination, and degradation. Dr. Dunlop and other medical professionals used her large buttocks and extended labia to claim that Black people were morphologically similar to Orangutans. When Baartman died in 1815 at the age of 26 her corpse became the property of scientist Georges Cuvier. Cuvier fabricated a plaster cast of her body before dissecting it and preserved her skeleton, brain, and genitals. Baartman's sexual organs were displayed in a Paris museum until 1974, when activists successfully petitioned to have her remains returned to her birthplace in South Africa. Baartman's body was not repatriated and buried until 2002. 

"Because of science," Samuel Cartwright, a New Orleans physician and Confederate loyalist, argued that high rates of physical and mental illnesses afflicting enslaved black persons were products of the ostensible biologically inferior mental capacity of the "black race." In his 1815 "Report on the Disease and the Physical Peculiarities of the Negro Race," Cartwright introduced what he called "Drapetomania," known as the "Disease Causing Slaves to Run Away." Unconvinced that enslaved Black children, women, and men might naturally seek freedom, Cartwright instead claimed that Drapetomania could be cured by "kindness."

"Because of science," Ota Benga, a young Congolese man, was put on display in an iron monkey cage at the Bronx Zoo in 1906. Benga was brought to the United States by Samuel Verner, a well-known white supremacist from South Carolina. Benga's captivity -- justified under the impress of scientific exploration -- was sanctioned by zoological society officials, the mayor of New York City, prominent scientists, much of the public, and many major U.S. newspapers, including The New York Times. Officials at the Bronx Zoo said that "Benga, according to our information, is…closer to the anthropoid apes than the other African savages…" Four years before Benga's exhibition, Dr. Daniel Brinton published his text The Basis of Social Relations: A Study in Ethnic Psychologywhere he first claimed that Africans were "midway between the Oranutang [sic] and the European white."

"Because of science," Alice Jones, who had recently married Leonard Rhinelander, a wealthy white man from Manhattan, was forced to "prove her race" in a New York court in 1924. During her trial Jones was forced to expose her naked body to an all-white, all-male jury and judge. She was made to remove various articles of clothing so the jury and judge could determine her race by examining the color of her nipples, back, and legs. The court concluded that Jones was not fully white

"Because of science," Dr. John Cutler, a physician with the U.S. Public Health Service, deliberately infected over 400 Guatemalan prisoners and sex workers with syphilis from 1946–1948. None of the research subjects were asked for their consent. Seventy-one subjects died during the experiments.

"Because of science," doctors and public officials deliberately withheld syphilis treatment from hundreds of black men in Alabama as part of the "Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male." The experiment -- conducted from 1932–1972 -- resulted in hundreds of deaths. To this day, there is no evidence that researchers informed the men of the study or its real purpose.

"Because of science," the University of Cincinnati, with the help of the Pentagon, conducted experiments on 88 cancer patients from 1960–1971 by exposing them to intense doses of radiation and recording their physical and mental responses. They endeavored to answer the following question: "In the event of a nuclear explosion, how much radiation could a soldier withstand before becoming disoriented or disabled?" According to reporting in The New York Times, "most were poor; 60 percent were black." 

"Because of science," psychiatrists Walter Bromberg and Frank Simon diagnosed Black Power as a form of "protest psychosis" in 1968. They described it as a form of "delusional anti-whiteness." Four years later, in "Symbolism in Protest Psychosis," they said the disorder was "a psychotic illness with strong elements of racial hostility and black nationalism [that entails] the release of previously repressed anti-white feelings, which combine with African ideology and beliefs." In short, "[the illness is oriented toward] reversing the white supremacy tradition or stating an objection to the accepted superiority of white values in terms of an African ideology." 

"Because of science," over 310 HIV+ Haitian asylum seekers were detained at a Guantánamo Bay prison campfrom 1991–1993. At the time, federal law prohibited individuals with HIV from entering the United States even if they qualified for political asylum. 

"Because of science," over 60,000 women and men -- the majority of whom are women of color -- were involuntarily sterilized from 1907–2003 in 32 U.S. states. Black and Latina women in Puerto Rico, New York, North Carolina, and California were targeted by the U.S. government for sterilization throughout the 20th century. North Carolina involuntarily sterilized 7,600 people from 1929–1974. During that time period, 85 percent of the victims were women and 40 percent were people of color. Native American women were also subjected to coercive and involuntary population control practices throughout much of the 20th century. The Indian Health Service (IHS) began providing family planning services to Native American families in 1965. According to the Center for Bioethics and Human Dignity, over 25 percent of Native American women were sterilized between 1970 and 1976.

"Because of science," nearly 150 women prisoners -- most of whom are Black and Brown -- were sterilized between 2006 and 2010 by doctors under contract with the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR). A May 2013 state audit reported that some of the tubal ligations in that time were done illegally without informed consent.

These histories matter.

The #ScienceMarch organizers have recently written that "people from all parts of the political spectrum should be alarmed by [Trump's] efforts to deny scientific progress." And they are correct. We should be alarmed. Such a claim, however, seems to leave unacknowledged the ways in which communities of color -- based on the histories outlined above -- might not take the unqualified promise of science at face value. To be sure, the history of science is a history of power -- the power to name problems and legitimize solutions, the power to dictate political agendas, and the power to hierarchize social order. Certainly, the #ScienceMarch is an idea worthy of merit. Its success, however, will depend on acknowledging the racialized histories of science itself.

This piece was reprinted by Truthout with permission or license. It may not be reproduced in any form without permission or license from the source.

Christopher F. Petrella

Christopher Petrella is a lecturer in American cultural studies at Bates College. His work explores the intersections of race, state and criminalization. He completed a Ph.D. in African diaspora studies from the University of California, Berkeley. Follow him on Twitter: @CFPetrella.


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Race, History and the #ScienceMarch

Sunday, February 05, 2017 By Christopher F. Petrella, Black Perspectives | News Analysis
  • font size decrease font size decrease font size increase font size increase font size
  • Print

A pro-science sign at the Women's March in New York, January 21, 2017. A pro-science sign at the Women's March in New York, January 21, 2017. (Photo: MTSOfan / Flickr)

Donald Trump is an anti-science president. In fact, his entire raison d'être -- perhaps unsurprisingly -- stands at cross-purposes with the scientific method, systematic inquiry, and even the basic notion of evidentiary support. In the few days since his inauguration, Trump has already prohibited scientists at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) from speaking to the public about their research. Moreover, the White House recently expunged U.S. National Park Service (NPS) Twitter content highlighting the threat of climate change. In the wake of Trump's dictates, concerned scientists have taken to social media to plan a protest in Washington, DC that they are dubbing the #ScienceMarch. The Twitter account associated with the action -- @ScienceMarchDC -- has amassed over 240,000 followers since it came online a week ago.

The #ScienceMarch has great potential to underscore the need for public policy to be grounded in scientific study. Securing widespread participation, however, will require that the organizers pull together multiple constituencies in a broad-based multi-racial and bi-partisan alliance. To be sure, the coalitional nature -- and, therefore, efficacy -- of this fledgling movement will be predicated on the extent to which its organizers are willing to acknowledge the racialized nature of the history of science itself. That is, the organizers must understand the manifold ways in which so-called scientific experimentation and discourse have been marshaled to ratify and propagate white supremacy and to degrade the bodies, minds, and experiences of people of color.

Whereas event organizers claim that "[science] is a not partisan issue," history unequivocally proves otherwise. Science is and always has been a function of power and politics. The historical record is replete with examples of the ways in which scientific inquiry and experimentation have sought to naturalize and rationalize the inferiority of people of color and justify their oppression through the language of pathology, deviance, and abnormality. Further, people of color have long served as laboratories for dangerous scientific experimentation. Exposing this lurid history is the first of many steps in forcing mainstream science -- often implicitly racialized as white -- to confront a historical past that exerts an enduring political force over our historical present.

"Because of science," 21-year-old Black South African Saartjie Baartman was brought to Europe under false pretenses in 1810 by physician William Dunlop and paraded around London's Piccadilly Circus as a "theatre of human oddities" on the basis of her large buttocks and protruding vulva. For years, Baartman's body was the object of spectacle, scientific fascination, and degradation. Dr. Dunlop and other medical professionals used her large buttocks and extended labia to claim that Black people were morphologically similar to Orangutans. When Baartman died in 1815 at the age of 26 her corpse became the property of scientist Georges Cuvier. Cuvier fabricated a plaster cast of her body before dissecting it and preserved her skeleton, brain, and genitals. Baartman's sexual organs were displayed in a Paris museum until 1974, when activists successfully petitioned to have her remains returned to her birthplace in South Africa. Baartman's body was not repatriated and buried until 2002. 

"Because of science," Samuel Cartwright, a New Orleans physician and Confederate loyalist, argued that high rates of physical and mental illnesses afflicting enslaved black persons were products of the ostensible biologically inferior mental capacity of the "black race." In his 1815 "Report on the Disease and the Physical Peculiarities of the Negro Race," Cartwright introduced what he called "Drapetomania," known as the "Disease Causing Slaves to Run Away." Unconvinced that enslaved Black children, women, and men might naturally seek freedom, Cartwright instead claimed that Drapetomania could be cured by "kindness."

"Because of science," Ota Benga, a young Congolese man, was put on display in an iron monkey cage at the Bronx Zoo in 1906. Benga was brought to the United States by Samuel Verner, a well-known white supremacist from South Carolina. Benga's captivity -- justified under the impress of scientific exploration -- was sanctioned by zoological society officials, the mayor of New York City, prominent scientists, much of the public, and many major U.S. newspapers, including The New York Times. Officials at the Bronx Zoo said that "Benga, according to our information, is…closer to the anthropoid apes than the other African savages…" Four years before Benga's exhibition, Dr. Daniel Brinton published his text The Basis of Social Relations: A Study in Ethnic Psychologywhere he first claimed that Africans were "midway between the Oranutang [sic] and the European white."

"Because of science," Alice Jones, who had recently married Leonard Rhinelander, a wealthy white man from Manhattan, was forced to "prove her race" in a New York court in 1924. During her trial Jones was forced to expose her naked body to an all-white, all-male jury and judge. She was made to remove various articles of clothing so the jury and judge could determine her race by examining the color of her nipples, back, and legs. The court concluded that Jones was not fully white

"Because of science," Dr. John Cutler, a physician with the U.S. Public Health Service, deliberately infected over 400 Guatemalan prisoners and sex workers with syphilis from 1946–1948. None of the research subjects were asked for their consent. Seventy-one subjects died during the experiments.

"Because of science," doctors and public officials deliberately withheld syphilis treatment from hundreds of black men in Alabama as part of the "Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male." The experiment -- conducted from 1932–1972 -- resulted in hundreds of deaths. To this day, there is no evidence that researchers informed the men of the study or its real purpose.

"Because of science," the University of Cincinnati, with the help of the Pentagon, conducted experiments on 88 cancer patients from 1960–1971 by exposing them to intense doses of radiation and recording their physical and mental responses. They endeavored to answer the following question: "In the event of a nuclear explosion, how much radiation could a soldier withstand before becoming disoriented or disabled?" According to reporting in The New York Times, "most were poor; 60 percent were black." 

"Because of science," psychiatrists Walter Bromberg and Frank Simon diagnosed Black Power as a form of "protest psychosis" in 1968. They described it as a form of "delusional anti-whiteness." Four years later, in "Symbolism in Protest Psychosis," they said the disorder was "a psychotic illness with strong elements of racial hostility and black nationalism [that entails] the release of previously repressed anti-white feelings, which combine with African ideology and beliefs." In short, "[the illness is oriented toward] reversing the white supremacy tradition or stating an objection to the accepted superiority of white values in terms of an African ideology." 

"Because of science," over 310 HIV+ Haitian asylum seekers were detained at a Guantánamo Bay prison campfrom 1991–1993. At the time, federal law prohibited individuals with HIV from entering the United States even if they qualified for political asylum. 

"Because of science," over 60,000 women and men -- the majority of whom are women of color -- were involuntarily sterilized from 1907–2003 in 32 U.S. states. Black and Latina women in Puerto Rico, New York, North Carolina, and California were targeted by the U.S. government for sterilization throughout the 20th century. North Carolina involuntarily sterilized 7,600 people from 1929–1974. During that time period, 85 percent of the victims were women and 40 percent were people of color. Native American women were also subjected to coercive and involuntary population control practices throughout much of the 20th century. The Indian Health Service (IHS) began providing family planning services to Native American families in 1965. According to the Center for Bioethics and Human Dignity, over 25 percent of Native American women were sterilized between 1970 and 1976.

"Because of science," nearly 150 women prisoners -- most of whom are Black and Brown -- were sterilized between 2006 and 2010 by doctors under contract with the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR). A May 2013 state audit reported that some of the tubal ligations in that time were done illegally without informed consent.

These histories matter.

The #ScienceMarch organizers have recently written that "people from all parts of the political spectrum should be alarmed by [Trump's] efforts to deny scientific progress." And they are correct. We should be alarmed. Such a claim, however, seems to leave unacknowledged the ways in which communities of color -- based on the histories outlined above -- might not take the unqualified promise of science at face value. To be sure, the history of science is a history of power -- the power to name problems and legitimize solutions, the power to dictate political agendas, and the power to hierarchize social order. Certainly, the #ScienceMarch is an idea worthy of merit. Its success, however, will depend on acknowledging the racialized histories of science itself.

This piece was reprinted by Truthout with permission or license. It may not be reproduced in any form without permission or license from the source.

Christopher F. Petrella

Christopher Petrella is a lecturer in American cultural studies at Bates College. His work explores the intersections of race, state and criminalization. He completed a Ph.D. in African diaspora studies from the University of California, Berkeley. Follow him on Twitter: @CFPetrella.


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