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Suspicion of Muslims in the US Is Deeply Rooted in Bigotry

Thursday, April 05, 2018 By Khaled A. Beydoun, University of California Press | Book Excerpt
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A Muslim woman walks along Fifth Avenue on Christmas day on December 25, 2017, in New York City. (Photo: Amir Levy / Getty Images)A Muslim woman walks along Fifth Avenue on Christmas day on December 25, 2017, in New York City. (Photo: Amir Levy / Getty Images)

The persecution of Muslims is tightly linked to other forms of white supremacy in the post-9/11 era. Learn how by reading American Islamophobia: Understanding the Roots and Rise of Fear. Get the book from Truthout by clicking here.

In this excerpt, a cab ride with a Latinx man who is about to embrace Islam causes Khaled A. Beydoun to reflect on 9/11, which ripped open a virulent hatred and fear of Muslims in the US. As his book argues, it is an Islamophobia that was already structured into society.

Crossroads and Intersections

Nobody's going to save you. No one's going to cut you down, cut the thorns thick around you…. There is no one who will feed the yearning. Face it. You will have to do, do it yourself.

Gloria Anzaldúa, Borderlands/La Frontera

 

If you know who you are, nobody can tell you what you are or what you are not.

My momma, Fikrieh Beydoun

I took my seat in the back of the Uber car, plugged in my phone and reclined my head to recharge on the way to the hotel. The road ahead is going to be a long one, I thought as I sank into the backseat, settling in for a temporary respite from the oncoming storm.

"As-salamu 'alaikum," the young driver greeted me in Spanish-inflected Arabic, abruptly ending my break.

"Wa 'alaikum al-salam," I responded, thoroughly surprised that these familiar words came out of the mouth of my tattooed Latino Uber driver, Juan. Was he Muslim? I pondered, wondering whether his neat beard signified more than a recent fad or fashionable grooming.

"It's an honor to meet you, Professor," he said, and continued, "I'm very familiar with your writing and work, and I'm happy you're here speaking at Cal State LA. I wish I could've been there to hear your talk." Another sign that Juan might in fact be Muslim, given that my work centers on Muslim American identity and, increasingly, Islamophobia.

"Thank you so much," I responded, taken aback by the fact that he knew who I was, and still contemplating whether he was a recent Muslim convert or born into a Muslim family. As a longtime resident of Los Angeles and a scholar familiar with Muslim American demographics, I was well aware that Latinx Muslims were the fastest-growing segment of the Muslim American population. I had attended Friday prayers with sermons delivered en español in California and in Florida, where I lived and taught law for two years, and prayed alongside brothers from Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico as often as I did next to Muslims from Egypt, Syria, or Pakistan. However, I was still unsure about Juan's religious identity, and to which destination he might steer this conversation.

I learned, en route from the East Los Angeles campus to my downtown hotel, that Juan was neither born to a Muslim family nor a convert. He was, rather, a man on the cusp of embracing Islam at a moment of unprecedented Islamophobia and rabid xenophobia, of imminent Muslim bans and Mexican walls.

"I have been studying Islam closely for some time now, and try to go to the mosque on some Fridays," he shared. "I am considering making my shahada," Juan continued, referencing the oath of induction whereby a new Muslim proclaims that "there is only one God, and Mohammed is his final messenger."

"Everybody assumes that I am a Muslim already," he said, with a cautious laugh that revealed discomfort with his liminal status. Juan turned down the radio, and the voice of Compton native Kendrick Lamar rapping, "We gon' be alright," to engage in a more fluid conversation. And, it appeared, to seek a response from me about his spiritual direction.

"That's wonderful," I responded to Juan, who was likely no more than twenty-three or twenty-four years old, trying to balance my concern for the challenges his new religious affiliation would present with the answer that I thought he wanted to hear, and perhaps expected, from a Muslim American scholar and activist whose name and work he recognized.

As he drove, we discussed the political challenges posed by the Trump administration, and specifically, the policies that would directly or disproportionately target Muslim and Latinx communities. Indeed, Trump capitalized heavily on demonizing these vulnerable groups, as evidenced most clearly by the two proposals -- the Muslim ban and the Mexico wall -- that became the rallying cries of his campaign. We also discussed how our kindred struggles with poverty complicated our pursuit of education, and how Trump's economic vision exacerbated conditions for indigent Americans, including the 45 percent of Muslim Americans living below, at, or dangerously close to the federal poverty line. The city's infamous, slow-moving traffic enabled a fast-paced conversation between my new friend and me and gave rise to an LA story seldom featured in newspapers or on television.

Juan's responses focused on his everyday struggles living in LA and the stories of family and friends from his Pico Union neighborhood. He pointed out that the onslaughts on Muslims and Latinx communities were hardly separate and independent, or parallel and segregated. Rather, they were, and are, overlapping, intersecting, and, for him, very intimate.

"As an undocumented Latino from El Salvador living in Pico Union" -- a heavily concentrated Latinx community on the margins of downtown Los Angeles -- "I am most fearful about the pop-up checkpoints and the immigration raids," he told me. These fears were more than imminent under the administration of President Obama, dubbed the "Deporter in Chief" by critics who opposed the accelerated mass deportations carried out during the final stages of his second term. But without question, Juan's fears have become more visceral, more palpable during the Trump administration.

Truthout Progressive Pick


Fascism Today: What It Is and How to End It

The complex legacy of Islamophobia in the United States.

Click here now to get the book!


"I think about this every time I drive to school, work, or visit a family member," Juan recounted, reminding me of the debilitating fear that comes over me after any terror attack. Yet his fear was far more immediate and frequent than mine, and loomed over him at every moment, including this one -- while he and I weaved through Los Angeles traffic, talking animatedly about politics, faith, and fear. He could be stopped at any time, whether alone or while whizzing customers through the city he knew better than the life lines on his palms.

I thought about the very imminent dangers these xenophobic policies and programs posed for Juan and people in similar situations in Los Angeles and throughout the country. I knew this city well and understood that the armed and irrational fear directed at nonwhite, non-Christian people was intense in LA, descending (among other places) on the city's galaxy of dense and large Latinx neighborhoods. This armed xenophobia was aimed particularly at those communities gripped by poverty, where Spanish was spoken primarily, and was concentrated on people and families lacking legal documentation -- indeed, the very intersection where Juan began and ended each day, and lived most of his hours in between.

***

Years before I rode with Juan, Los Angeles was my home away from my hometown of Detroit, the city where I began my career as a law professor, earned my law degree, and only two weeks into my first year of law school at UCLA, the setting from which I witnessed the 9/11 terror attacks. I remember the events of that day more clearly than I do any other day, largely because every terror attack that unfolds in the United States or abroad compels me to revisit the motions and emotions of that day. For Muslim Americans, 9/11 is not just a day that will live in infamy or an unprecedented tragedy buried in the past; it is a stalking reminder that the safeguards of citizenship are tenuous and the prospect of suspicion and the presumption of guilt are immediate.

Copyright (2018) by Khaled A. Beydoun. Not to be reposted without permission of the publisher, the University of California Press.

Khaled A. Beydoun

Khaled A. Beydoun is Associate Professor of Law at the University of Detroit Mercy and the author of the forthcoming Islamophobia: Understanding the Roots and Rise of Fear (University of California Press, 2018).

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Suspicion of Muslims in the US Is Deeply Rooted in Bigotry

Thursday, April 05, 2018 By Khaled A. Beydoun, University of California Press | Book Excerpt
  • font size decrease font size decrease font size increase font size increase font size
  • Print

A Muslim woman walks along Fifth Avenue on Christmas day on December 25, 2017, in New York City. (Photo: Amir Levy / Getty Images)A Muslim woman walks along Fifth Avenue on Christmas day on December 25, 2017, in New York City. (Photo: Amir Levy / Getty Images)

The persecution of Muslims is tightly linked to other forms of white supremacy in the post-9/11 era. Learn how by reading American Islamophobia: Understanding the Roots and Rise of Fear. Get the book from Truthout by clicking here.

In this excerpt, a cab ride with a Latinx man who is about to embrace Islam causes Khaled A. Beydoun to reflect on 9/11, which ripped open a virulent hatred and fear of Muslims in the US. As his book argues, it is an Islamophobia that was already structured into society.

Crossroads and Intersections

Nobody's going to save you. No one's going to cut you down, cut the thorns thick around you…. There is no one who will feed the yearning. Face it. You will have to do, do it yourself.

Gloria Anzaldúa, Borderlands/La Frontera

 

If you know who you are, nobody can tell you what you are or what you are not.

My momma, Fikrieh Beydoun

I took my seat in the back of the Uber car, plugged in my phone and reclined my head to recharge on the way to the hotel. The road ahead is going to be a long one, I thought as I sank into the backseat, settling in for a temporary respite from the oncoming storm.

"As-salamu 'alaikum," the young driver greeted me in Spanish-inflected Arabic, abruptly ending my break.

"Wa 'alaikum al-salam," I responded, thoroughly surprised that these familiar words came out of the mouth of my tattooed Latino Uber driver, Juan. Was he Muslim? I pondered, wondering whether his neat beard signified more than a recent fad or fashionable grooming.

"It's an honor to meet you, Professor," he said, and continued, "I'm very familiar with your writing and work, and I'm happy you're here speaking at Cal State LA. I wish I could've been there to hear your talk." Another sign that Juan might in fact be Muslim, given that my work centers on Muslim American identity and, increasingly, Islamophobia.

"Thank you so much," I responded, taken aback by the fact that he knew who I was, and still contemplating whether he was a recent Muslim convert or born into a Muslim family. As a longtime resident of Los Angeles and a scholar familiar with Muslim American demographics, I was well aware that Latinx Muslims were the fastest-growing segment of the Muslim American population. I had attended Friday prayers with sermons delivered en español in California and in Florida, where I lived and taught law for two years, and prayed alongside brothers from Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico as often as I did next to Muslims from Egypt, Syria, or Pakistan. However, I was still unsure about Juan's religious identity, and to which destination he might steer this conversation.

I learned, en route from the East Los Angeles campus to my downtown hotel, that Juan was neither born to a Muslim family nor a convert. He was, rather, a man on the cusp of embracing Islam at a moment of unprecedented Islamophobia and rabid xenophobia, of imminent Muslim bans and Mexican walls.

"I have been studying Islam closely for some time now, and try to go to the mosque on some Fridays," he shared. "I am considering making my shahada," Juan continued, referencing the oath of induction whereby a new Muslim proclaims that "there is only one God, and Mohammed is his final messenger."

"Everybody assumes that I am a Muslim already," he said, with a cautious laugh that revealed discomfort with his liminal status. Juan turned down the radio, and the voice of Compton native Kendrick Lamar rapping, "We gon' be alright," to engage in a more fluid conversation. And, it appeared, to seek a response from me about his spiritual direction.

"That's wonderful," I responded to Juan, who was likely no more than twenty-three or twenty-four years old, trying to balance my concern for the challenges his new religious affiliation would present with the answer that I thought he wanted to hear, and perhaps expected, from a Muslim American scholar and activist whose name and work he recognized.

As he drove, we discussed the political challenges posed by the Trump administration, and specifically, the policies that would directly or disproportionately target Muslim and Latinx communities. Indeed, Trump capitalized heavily on demonizing these vulnerable groups, as evidenced most clearly by the two proposals -- the Muslim ban and the Mexico wall -- that became the rallying cries of his campaign. We also discussed how our kindred struggles with poverty complicated our pursuit of education, and how Trump's economic vision exacerbated conditions for indigent Americans, including the 45 percent of Muslim Americans living below, at, or dangerously close to the federal poverty line. The city's infamous, slow-moving traffic enabled a fast-paced conversation between my new friend and me and gave rise to an LA story seldom featured in newspapers or on television.

Juan's responses focused on his everyday struggles living in LA and the stories of family and friends from his Pico Union neighborhood. He pointed out that the onslaughts on Muslims and Latinx communities were hardly separate and independent, or parallel and segregated. Rather, they were, and are, overlapping, intersecting, and, for him, very intimate.

"As an undocumented Latino from El Salvador living in Pico Union" -- a heavily concentrated Latinx community on the margins of downtown Los Angeles -- "I am most fearful about the pop-up checkpoints and the immigration raids," he told me. These fears were more than imminent under the administration of President Obama, dubbed the "Deporter in Chief" by critics who opposed the accelerated mass deportations carried out during the final stages of his second term. But without question, Juan's fears have become more visceral, more palpable during the Trump administration.

Truthout Progressive Pick


Fascism Today: What It Is and How to End It

The complex legacy of Islamophobia in the United States.

Click here now to get the book!


"I think about this every time I drive to school, work, or visit a family member," Juan recounted, reminding me of the debilitating fear that comes over me after any terror attack. Yet his fear was far more immediate and frequent than mine, and loomed over him at every moment, including this one -- while he and I weaved through Los Angeles traffic, talking animatedly about politics, faith, and fear. He could be stopped at any time, whether alone or while whizzing customers through the city he knew better than the life lines on his palms.

I thought about the very imminent dangers these xenophobic policies and programs posed for Juan and people in similar situations in Los Angeles and throughout the country. I knew this city well and understood that the armed and irrational fear directed at nonwhite, non-Christian people was intense in LA, descending (among other places) on the city's galaxy of dense and large Latinx neighborhoods. This armed xenophobia was aimed particularly at those communities gripped by poverty, where Spanish was spoken primarily, and was concentrated on people and families lacking legal documentation -- indeed, the very intersection where Juan began and ended each day, and lived most of his hours in between.

***

Years before I rode with Juan, Los Angeles was my home away from my hometown of Detroit, the city where I began my career as a law professor, earned my law degree, and only two weeks into my first year of law school at UCLA, the setting from which I witnessed the 9/11 terror attacks. I remember the events of that day more clearly than I do any other day, largely because every terror attack that unfolds in the United States or abroad compels me to revisit the motions and emotions of that day. For Muslim Americans, 9/11 is not just a day that will live in infamy or an unprecedented tragedy buried in the past; it is a stalking reminder that the safeguards of citizenship are tenuous and the prospect of suspicion and the presumption of guilt are immediate.

Copyright (2018) by Khaled A. Beydoun. Not to be reposted without permission of the publisher, the University of California Press.

Khaled A. Beydoun

Khaled A. Beydoun is Associate Professor of Law at the University of Detroit Mercy and the author of the forthcoming Islamophobia: Understanding the Roots and Rise of Fear (University of California Press, 2018).